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Samolubny gen : Richard Dawkins :
Background[ edit ] Dawkins builds upon George C. Williams 's book Adaptation and Natural Selectionwhich argued that altruism is not based upon group benefit per se,  but is a result of selection that occurs "at the level of the gene mediated by the phenotype "  and any selection at the group level occurred only under rare circumstances.
Hamilton and others who opposed group selection and selection aimed directly at benefit to the individual organism: With altruism this will happen only if the affected individual is richard dawkins samolubny gen relative of the richard dawkins samolubny gen, therefore having an increased chance of carrying the gene.
Hamilton, The Evolution of Altruistic Behavior, pp.
He considers the origin of life with the arrival of molecules able to replicate themselves. Richard dawkins samolubny gen there, he looks at DNA 's role in evolutionand its organisation into chromosomes and geneswhich in his view behave selfishly.
He describes organisms as apparently purposive but fundamentally simple survival machines, which use negative feedback to achieve control.
This extends, he argues, to the brain 's ability to simulate the world with subjective consciousnessand signalling between species.
He then introduces the idea of the evolutionarily stable strategyand uses it to explain why alternative competitive richard dawkins samolubny gen like bullying and retaliating exist.
The Selfish Gene - Wikipedia
This allows him to consider what selfishness in a gene might actually mean, describing W. Hamilton 's argument for kin selectionthat genes for behaviour that improves the survival chances of close relatives richard dawkins samolubny gen spread in a population, because those relatives carry the same genes.
Dawkins examines childbearing and raising children as evolutionary strategies. He attacks the idea of group selection for the good of the species as richard dawkins samolubny gen by V.
Wynne-Edwardsarguing instead that each parent necessarily behaves selfishly. A question is whether parents should invest in their offspring equally or should favour some of them, and explains that what is best for the survival of the parents' genes is not always best for individual children.
Similarly, Dawkins argues, there are conflicts of interest between males and females, but he notes that R. Fisher showed that the optimal sex ratio is In that case, the richard dawkins samolubny gen of having a female offspring is safe, as she'll have a pup, but the strategy of having a male can bring a large return dozens of pupseven though many males live out their lives as bachelors.
Amotz Zahavi 's theory of honest signalling explains stotting as a selfish act, he argues, improving the richard dawkins samolubny gen chances of escaping from a predator by indicating how difficult the chase would be.
Dawkins discusses why many species live in groups, achieving mutual benefits through mechanisms such as Hamilton's selfish herd model: Altruism too can evolve, as in the social insects such richard dawkins samolubny gen ants and bees, where workers give up the right to reproduce in favour of a sister, the queen; in their case, the unusual haplodiploid system of sex determination may have helped to bring this about, as females in a nest are exceptionally closely related.
The final chapter of the first edition introduced the idea of the memea culturally-transmitted entity such as a hummable tune, by analogy to genetic transmission. Dawkins describes God as an old idea which probably arose many times, and which has sufficient psychological appeal to survive effectively in the meme pool.
The second edition added two more chapters.
His contention is that the genes that are passed on are the ones whose evolutionary consequences serve their own implicit interest to continue the anthropomorphism in being replicated, not necessarily those of the organism. In later work, Dawkins brings evolutionary "selfishness" down to creation of a widely proliferated extended phenotype.
For example, Andrew Brown has written: It means, instead, an extremely richard dawkins samolubny gen quality for which there is richard dawkins samolubny gen good word in the English language: There ought to be a better, shorter word—but "selfish" isn't it.
He writes in The Evolution of Human Sexuality