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Although there are many that, facing this reference, full of challenges, state that the lack of a lodestar, historia universal comparada a certain guideline to struggle against unpredictable storms, proves to be, by any reckoning, an insoluble obstacle. Caivano, for instance, in quite a catastrophical way, declares that beyond doubt there are bad times historia universal comparada educating when "the prestigious Post-modern doctrine of uncertainty rules as the only admissible certainty" Caivano,p.

Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa

He concludes remarking that "doubtlessly, there are no clear horizons". Reactions from Comparative Education: Transitologies and Learnologies as models to read Postmodernism In the current scenario, and perhaps as a reaction to it, new theories come up from Comparative Education that prove to be creative, historia universal comparada they open new paths for the discipline.


Transitology, as a nexus between Modernism and Post-modernism, and Learnology. Transitology is a part historia universal comparada a global proposal whose authorship belongs to Cowen.

According to his approach to the issue, Comparative Education has to a read the global; b understand historia universal comparada c comprehend the other; and d analyse pedagogies Cowen,a. Regarding transitologies, 2 this is what the author means by transit: This way, Comparative Education will play its symbolical role as if it were a lighting storm on dark days Cowen, b, p.

Besides, it will try to provide some balance to this context wherein many changes have taken place, so that the new educational codes will be revealed through the first, that is, the comprehension of political and economical powers within educational systems.

Thereby, the proposal of the author, within his project, is that Comparative Historia universal comparada has to re-read the global context. And, starting from there, to extend its agenda of research, and to recover its concern about cultural analysis, historical dimensions, and an emancipatory criticism of politics, which are aspects that had in a certain way become lethargic.

To this effect, Transitology is important as long as it places the State and its educational and social projects on the core of Post-modern Comparative Education Cowen, a, p.

Historia universal comparada. 4, Del 660 al 1250 de nuestra era

Learnology is a term coined by Broadfoot and also called by her Neo-comparative Education, 4 to refer to an approach to Historia universal comparada Education which is in tune with the more general efforts to reconceptualize social sciences to reflect the realities of life in the 21st Century Broadfoot,p.

Both education and Comparative Education have to focus in aspects that, in essence, refer more to the subject and his access to knowledge, rather than to educational systems and their resulting supply problems.

In order to achieve this aspiration, new promising historia universal comparada of action and reflection are opened. Being conscious that there exist many queries concerning this issue, Broadfoot points out, to this effect, that comparative studies from a cultural perspective will doubtlessly help to interpret new realities.

In fact, its utility is proved from the moment in which historia universal comparada is considered an opportunity to contribute to national and international political debates. And it is predicted that "If we take the right road, we may find ourselves on a major highway" Broadfoot,p.

François Henri Hallopeau

As a conclusion, there is a scenario where the effects of Post-modernism in education in general and in Comparative Education in particular present new challenges that are answered by the latter through proposals such as Historia universal comparada and Learnology.

So, Comparative Education has to be prepared to continue giving renewed senses to the role of education and educational policies in a comprehensive and interpretative way. Specially since the lot of theoretical proposals is coming from the different current models and theories, although they are linked by their own connection and location on today's global society.

In search of a lodestar for Comparative Education In a world, according to Delorsdominated by educational tensions that, both in the theoretical-paradigmatical level and the pragmatical one, manage to prevail as sometimes irreconcilable dualisms global and local; universal and individual; difference and similarity; tradition and modernity; short-term and historia universal comparada considerations; competitiveness and equality of opportunity; spiritual historia universal comparada material, to name the most significant ones, some of which have already been subject of study on these pageswhich course should really be taken by Comparative Education?

A Bíblia e a Fonte Histórica do Direito - Erivaldo de Jesus - Google Books

Where is its lodestar? Comparative Education, as it has already been proved, has started to establish alternative courses in order to manage through the current scenarios that raise the flag of uncertainty as an explanation to the numerous educational realities on an international scale.

Transitologies and Learnologies show this trend. Watson acknowledges that here lies one of the most provoking and defiant challenges, as she predicts that "how to make sense of the proliferation of ideas and values, and the rejection of commonly accepted norms and traditional values, will be a test for comparative educators in the historia universal comparada ahead" Watson,p.

Historia universal comparada view of this dual panorama, full of contradictions that counterbalance the linear past, balanced and even predictable both in its problems and its solutions, it historia universal comparada inevitable to wonder: