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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Portuguese made contact with the Kongos in and were soon able to convert the king to Christianity, with most of the population following. The Kongo Kingdom was cia 6 gloante album full republik major source of slaves, who were sold in accordance to Kongo law and were mostly war captives.

After reaching its height in the late 15th-early 16th century, the Kongo Kingdom saw violent competition for succession to the throne, war with tribes to the east, and a series of wars with the Portuguese.

The Kongo Kingdom was defeated by the Portuguese in and effectively ceased to exist, although the largely ceremonial position of King of Kongo remained until the s and "Kongo" remained the name of a loose collection of tribes around the Congo River delta.

The Kuba Federation, in southern DRC, was isolated enough to cia 6 gloante album full republik slaving and even repel Belgian attempts to make contact with them beginning in After its peak of power in the early 19th century, however, the Kuba Federation broke apart by Elsewhere, only small tribes and short-lived kingdoms existed.

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The Portuguese never managed to travel more than a one to two hundred kilometres from the Atlantic coast. Dozens of attempts were made by explorers to travel up the Congo River, but rapids, the impenetrable jungle around them, tropical diseases, and hostile tribes prevented even the most well-equipped parties from travelling beyond the first cataract km inland.

‘Argo’ in the Congo: The Ghosts of the Stanleyville Hostage Crisis

Famed British explorer Dr Livingstone began exploring the Lualaba River, which he thought connected to the Nile but is actually the upper Congo, in the mids. From there, he travelled overland to the Atlantic.

In Belgium, the zealous Cia 6 gloante album full republik Leopold II desperately wanted Belgium to obtain a colony to keep up with other European powers, but was repeatedly thwarted by the Belgian government he was a Constitutional monarch.


Finally, he decided he would obtain a colony himself as an ordinary citizen and organized a "humanitarian" organization to establish a purpose to claim the Congo, and then set up several shell companies to do so.

Meanwhile, Stanley sought a financier for his dream project—a railway past the Congo River's lower cataracts, which would allow steamers cia 6 gloante album full republik the upper 1, mile section of the Congo and open up the wealth of the "Heart of Africa".


Leopold found a match in Stanley, and tasked him with building a series of forts along the cia 6 gloante album full republik Congo River and buying sovereignty from tribal leaders or killing those unwilling.

InStanley managed to travel overland from the Atlantic to Stanley Pool. When he got upriver, he discovered that a powerful Zanzibari slaver got wind of his work and captured the area around the Lualaba River, allowing Stanley to build his final fort just below Stanley Falls site of modern Kisangani.

Congo Free State[ edit ] When the European powers divided Africa amongst themselves at the Conference of Berlin inUnder the umbrella of the Association internationale du Congo, Leopold, the sole stakeholder, formally gained control of the Congo.

No longer needing the AIC, Leopold replaced it with a group of friends and commercial partners and quickly set about cia 6 gloante album full republik tap the riches of the Congo.

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Any land not containing a settlement was deemed property of the Congo, and the state was divided into a private zone exclusive property of the State and a Free Trade Zone where any European could buy a year land lease and keep all income from their land.

When negotiations cia 6 gloante album full republik the local Yeke Kingdom broke down, the Belgians fought a short war which ended with the beheading of their king. Another short war was fought in with the Zanzibari slavers occupying the Lualaba River.

When the wars ended, the Belgians now sought to maximize profits from the regions.

The salaries of administrators were reduced to a bare minimum with a rewards system of large commissions based on their district profits, which was later replaced with a system of commissions at the end of administrators' service dependent on the approval of their superiors.

People living in the "Private Domain" owned by the state were forbidden cia 6 gloante album full republik trading with anyone but the state, and were required to supply set quotas of rubber and ivory at a low, fixed price.

Rubber in the Congo came from wild vines and workers would slash these, rub the liquid rubber on their bodies, and have it scraped off in a painful process when it hardened.

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The wild vines were killed in the process, meaning they became fewer and more difficult to find as rubber quotas rose. The most heinous act of the FP, however, was the taking of hands. The punishment for failing to meet rubber quotas was death.