These methods cover the determination of various strength and related properties of wood by testing small clear specimens. These methods represent procedures for evaluating the different mechanical and physical properties, controlling factors such as specimen size. Published July Originally published as D – 22 T. Last previous edition D – 2 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 3 Annual Book of. Download scientific diagram| Fabrication of clear specimens to ASTM D (a) Cocos nucifera exposed to pyroclastic flow; (b) mm thick lumber; and (c).
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For dry material, it may sometimes be advisable to pile the specimens in a similar manner and place them in a desiccator, should the failures in test indicate that a slight end-drying is necessary. In case two or more kinds of failures develop, all shall astm d143 94 described in the order of their occurrence; for example, shearing followed by brooming.
It should be noted that spiral grain 9. In determining the proportion of summerwood, it is essential that the end surface be prepared so as to permit accurate latewood measurement.
When astm d143 94 fibers are broomed 9.
Compression Parallel to Grain over at the ends from sawing, a astm d143 94 sanding, planing, or similar treatment of the ends is recommended. Impact Bending primary method specimens, or 1 by 1 by 4 in.
The actual cross-sectional made on 2 by 2 by 30 in. The dimensions and the length astm d143 94 be measured see At least one platen Hatt-Turner or similar impact machine see Fig. To aid in standardization and to facilitate compari- sons, the size of the toughness specimen has been made equal to that accepted internationally.
The actual height and width at the center and the length shall be measured see The load shall be applied to a radial or tangential surface on alternate specimens. Adjust the machine before test so that the pendulum hangs vertically, and adjust it to compensate astm d143 94 friction.
Several types of the machine Note 8. If astm d143 94 Tough- The toughness shall then be calculated as follows: Compression Perpendicular to Grain The actual height, width, and length shall be right angles to the length Fig.
The actual width of the measured see Compression shall be measured between the loading surfaces. Hardness on each end. Astm d143 94 choice between the two radial and between The actual average of the piece.
The penetrations shall be far enough from cross-sectional dimensions and length shall be measured see the edge to prevent splitting or chipping Note Compression Parallel astm d143 94 Grain 9.
The actual cross-sectional dimensions and the length shall be measured see With specimens of uniform cross section, this result can best be obtained when the ends are at a very slightly lower moisture content than the body.
With green material, it will usually suffice to close-pile the specimens, cover the astm d143 94 with a damp cloth, and expose the ends for a short time. For dry material, it may sometimes be astm d143 94 to pile the specimens in a similar manner and place them in a desiccator, should the failures in test indicate that a slight end-drying is necessary.
In case two or more kinds of failures develop, all shall be described in the order of their occurrence; for example, shearing followed by brooming.
Astm d143 94 failure shall also be sketched in its proper position on the data sheet. In determining the proportion of summerwood, it is essential that the end surface be prepared so as to permit accurate latewood measurement.